Hollowed Ground

Tamil Nadu’s Saivite history shows why Modi’s sengol bid will fail

26 June 2023
The prime minister Narendra Modi receives the sengol from pontiffs of Saivite aadheenams—Tamil non-Brahmin Saivite religious orders. The sengol was historically associated with kingship in the Tamil country.
ANI Photo
The prime minister Narendra Modi receives the sengol from pontiffs of Saivite aadheenams—Tamil non-Brahmin Saivite religious orders. The sengol was historically associated with kingship in the Tamil country.
ANI Photo

“The king holds the sengol,” CN Annadurai, who would go on to become Tamil Nadu’s first chief minister, wrote in the Tamil weekly Dravida Nadu, in August 1947. Among the presents the new prime minister of independent India, Jawaharlal Nehru, had received was the sengol, a golden sceptre historically associated with kingship in the Tamil country. It was presented to him by the Thiruvaduthurai Aadheenam, a non-Brahmin Saivite religious order in the Madras Presidency.

Annadurai castigated the aadheenam’s plain-faced attempt to curry favour with the new regime. “Who gave the sengol to the first government? The aadheenam!” he wrote. “Everyone will talk about the aadheenam who blessed, sanctioned and handed over the sengol as a seal of authority—and only then the new government started functioning! This will be the common talk not just now but in days to come as well.” A staunch leader of the atheistic Dravidian movement, Annadurai cautioned Nehru about the aadheenams. He wrote that a democracy required doing away with symbols such as a gold sceptre, which had been wrought from the immense wealth, labour and religious dominance that the aadheenams then commanded.

Almost eight decades later, a role reversal of sorts has taken place. This time, it was the government that appeared to be courting the Tamil priests. On 27 May, a day before Prime Minister Narendra Modi was to inaugurate the new parliament building, pontiffs of 21 Saivite aadheenams arrived in Delhi to deliver the sengol to him. Modi gave it pride of place, ceremoniously interring it next to the speaker’s seat. His government claimed that the sengol was a symbol of transfer of power that the British governor general, Louis Mountbatten, had handed over to the aadheenam to deliver to Nehru—allegedly on the advice of C Rajagopalachari, a Tamil Brahmin who had been chief minister of the Madras Presidency and would succeed him as governor general. Meanwhile, every legislator from Tamil Nadu, alongside various opposition parties, boycotted the inauguration because of the government’s refusal to invite the president, Draupadi Murmu.

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    Abhay Regi  is an assistant editor at The Caravan.

    Keywords: Tamil Nadu Parliament building Parliament Dravidian movement Dravidian politics annadurai Self-Respect Movement Periyar The Caravan Collection #19 Caravan 2023 Rewind: Perspectives
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